The interactive companion to these tables requires a modern browser e. How do you use this site professionally? In Nature 's survey, a subset of scholars who said they 'regularly visited' social media sites were quizzed in detail about their activities. InEmmanuel Nnaemeka Nnadi needed help to sequence some drug-resistant fungal pathogens.
A PhD student studying microbiology in Nigeria, he did not have the expertise and equipment he needed. So he turned to ResearchGate, a free social-networking site for academics, and fired off a few e-mails. Over the past three years, the two scientists have worked together on fungal infections in Africa, with Nnadi, now at Plateau State University in Bokkos, shipping his samples to Romeo at the University of Messina for analysis.
Ijad Madisch, a Berlin-based former physician and virologist, tells this story as just one example of the successes of ResearchGate, which he founded with two friends six years ago. Essentially a scholarly version of Facebook or LinkedIn, the site gives members a place to create profile pages, share papers, track views and downloads, and discuss research.
Who posted all those articles to ResearchGate anyway?
Nnadi has uploaded all his papers to the site, for instance, and Romeo uses it to keep in touch with hundreds of scientists, some of whom helped him to assemble his first fungal genome. More than 4. And Madisch has grand goals for the site: he hopes that it will become a key venue for scientists wanting to engage in collaborative discussion, peer review papers, share negative results that might never otherwise be published, and even upload raw data sets. How are they getting so much money?
Yuan is not the only one who has been taken aback. A few years ago, the idea that millions of scholars would rush to join one giant academic social network seemed dead in the water.
Some observers speculated that this was because scientists were wary of sharing data, papers and comments online — or if they did want to share, they would prefer do it on their own terms, rather than through a privately owned site. But it seems that those earlier efforts were ahead of their time —or maybe they were simply doing it wrong. Today, ResearchGate is just one of several academic social networks going viral.
San Francisco-based competitor Academia. A third site, London-based Mendeley, claims 3. It was originally launched as software for managing and storing documents, but it encourages private and public social networking. Despite the excitement and investment, it is far from clear how much of the activity on these sites involves productive engagement, and how much is just passing curiosity — or a desire to access papers shared by other users that they might otherwise have to pay for.
In an effort to get past the hype and explore what is really happening, Nature e-mailed tens of thousands of researchers in May to ask how they use social networks and other popular profile-hosting or search services, and received more than 3, responses from 95 different countries. Just under half said that they visit regularly, putting the site second only to Google Scholar, and ahead of Facebook and LinkedIn.
Swalla says that she and most of her colleagues are on ResearchGate, where she finds the latest relevant papers much more easily than by following marine-biology journals.This kind of foundation can be made by submitting your work to famous websites that have featured articles of excellent grammar, quality, and resources. Most of the writers online have their work reviewed by editors online after which the article is selected for publication. However, by following the basic principles of the website and formulating your articles in that particular manner will allow you to grab onto the position of a prestigious writer with the high number of recommendations.
The benefits of having websites that post your work online are that you gain recognition as a writer directly and become known as a skilled writer. This allows companies to come across your work and directly contact you for future projects. Igor Kholkin, founder of a top-ranked SEO agencynotes that his company frequently contracts writers who post great content on other sites. This, however, depend upon your quality of work since not every writer is selected for publication.How to add paper in Google Scholar (Tamil) - How to create Profile, Add articles manually
Getting a job is as easy as losing one, therefore, you should keep your options open. From this list of websites that offer article publishing, you should make sure that you use your article in plenty of websites. This increases your chances of gaining recognition online as a skilled writer.
Check here for list of guest posting sites at myvu. One of the widely used sites, eHow allows you to grow your name online as a writer by using your articles. However, your article must be grammatically correct and should consist of citations placed in the right manner.
For learning, building, and fixing in the context of content writing, eHow helps you in earning loads of money and experience. Submit your article thereby check the number of viewers you get accordingly empower your strength for better and easier challenges.
EzineArticles is one of the most popular sites for placing your articles online. In fact, there are plenty of companies in search of writers who source out their employees from this site. Free of charge gain promotion as a writer.
There are hundreds and thousands of searchable quality content available in terms of articles and posts written and posted by the expertise and they are allowed to convert them into newsletters. ArticleCube is launched inwhere expert and qualified authors and writer cans post quality content like articles and posts.
ArticleCube is an article based search engine cum website. You can search for a different category wise article here. More than a million writers are using this site for promoting themselves. It is a famous directory where you can submit your articles for marketing. Worried of posting article in category related websites? Take no tension, Article Alley is designed for almost all the categories that come into action regularly.Some of its members filed a lawsuit against ResearchGate and sent ResearchGate copyright takedown notices for many articles posted there.
The dispute is about the millions of copyrighted articles—the Coalition claims there are 7 million—made freely available through ResearchGate. So, who posted all those articles to ResearchGate?Latex thebibliography inch round
As far as I can tell, every article shared through ResearchGate was put there by one of its authors. For most of the ResearchGate articles, I have every reason to think that the publishers are correct in their assertion of legal authority, based on publishing contracts, to remove those articles.
Authors often sign publishing contracts that transfer almost all of their rights to publishers. So instead, many authors opt to follow their natural inclination—despite the risks—to take what steps they can to make their work easier to find, read, and perhaps be cited. Judging by the 7 million articles authors have shared through ResearchGate, many authors seem to view that model with something from outright contempt to self-interested indifference.
If enough people do it, it may have a serious effect on journal subscriptions. But authors are in a pretty good position; if publishers start actively enforcing copyright law against authors we may react negatively and possibly very publicly against not just the particular enforcement action but against the underlying business model.
See, e. So instead, we now see a stream of copyright enforcement not against authors but against the intermediaries that authors use to share their work: ResearchGate, Academia. It puts those organizations in a tough position, but ultimately, the harm is to authors who want to share their work. As many people have stated before, the goals of open access can best be achieved if authors—who have great power as the initial owners of copyright in their works—hold on to their rights and negotiate their publishing contracts for terms that allow them to widely distribute online.
For that matter, authors who want to share their work as openly as they can would do well to use alternatives besides posting to proprietary commercial sites like ResearchGate. As for authors today, we can protect ourselves from the risk of takedown notices by retaining our rights.
Increasingly, we can negotiate to keep the rights we need to post our works anywhere we want to be read. For anyone interested, here are some tools for doing this the right way:.
I will soon finish my PhD and start searching for a post-doc position and I was wondering which web-based solution is the best suited to present myself and my work I work in plant biology. I see two main options: social network type, such as Academia. My concern is that social networking solution does not offer a lot of flexibility attaching documents, presenting my current research more in depthbut I do not want to seem too pretentious by having my own webpage while I am just a PhD student. Isn't it too soon to have a personal web page at this stage of my career I am still a PhD student to present my work or is the pre-made solution more adequate?
Perhaps it's different in other fields, but in math, it isn't pretentious for a PhD student to operate their own website, and it's quite common. Most schools, at least in the US, provide the space for students to host a personal website.
Furthermore, I'd say that after a couple years, a PhD student again, in math absolutely should have a personal website. Formats oriented around published papers or formal CV aren't very useful for giving information about a grad student because there isn't that much of either.
If I meet someone or hear about them from their advisor, and want to learn more about their work, a personal website is best way to get some information about where they're likely to be when they finish. As soon as you have even a single preprint, people will begin searching online to find out who you are and what else you have done, so you must have a web page.
It doesn't have to be elaborate, and it's enough to start with a few lines of professional contact information and a list of links to papers, but you have to have something. I think a generic web page looks more professional than one created using a social networking site, but perhaps that's because I'm old.Beamer latex bibliography page maker instructions
However, there is one absolutely critical issue: the page must allow visitors to download any content without logging in. At least one of the social sites lets visitors view papers on the site, but insists that you create an account if you want to download anything.Imperial spiral thesis
This is terrible! In my experience, nobody's going to create an account unless they really, really want that paper, and either way they are going to be unhappy at the imposition. Offering access to papers and then harassing anyone who tries to download them leaves a very bad impression. Personally the professors and PhD students I remember well are the ones with an elaborate page for themselves. From what I have learnt from this site, a PhD is simply not merely about publications, citations and academic work.
You need to build contacts, make friends and network in the academia, which as such is a small place. Having a page for yourselves is hardly pretentious. It is just like having a Facebook profile or a Twitter account, a means to show others that you are alive and kicking. And publications are not the only thing you may have there. Add a lot of extra-curricular details, your non-academic passions and interests, some photos that may make people take interest in you as a person. For further details, I would like to redirect you to some wonderful answers to the question I asked here.
You should be sure to make your papers available somewhere to the extent the jounral policies allow, or more at your own risk. The options are:. LinkedIn — looks similar to other social networking sites, but is more carrier-oriented, you can put any publications there, and link them to either your homepage or arXiv or whatever, or don't link them at all, that's up to you. ResearchGate — I have no true experience with RG since it's not so popular amongst my colleagues.
But it seems to me that you can both put the whole article there, or just put the reference there with the option that people can ask you to send them the paper.
This is very nice since you need not to break any journal's policies to make it work. It seems to be a good amount of various resources, so that people can find me easily, but I don't spend too much time with maintanance.
While sites like Academia. If nothing else there is the obvious threat that they may go out of business and leave one's web identity untethered, so to speak. They might also decide to run adverts against your profile, sell your data to other companies, and so on. With a personal website on one's own domain there is a level of control and security that can't be obtained from these other services.The scholarly social media platform ResearchGate has reportedly started to take down large numbers of research papers shared in breach of copyright.
ResearchGate, a popular tool used by scholars to share their work, is taking down many researchers' work, apparently in response to demands from publishers.
The networking site, which enables researchers to easily upload and share their sometimes publisher copyrighted research papers, has been the target of publishers' ire for some time, but now it seems the situation has escalated, with some publishers threatening legal action. In a statement on Oct. In addition to the take-down notices, two members of the coalition are exploring their legal options.
By Tuesday, it seems that ResearchGate had responded. ResearchGate declined to comment for this article. Hinchliffe said that she had not yet heard from any researchers who had their work taken down but said she expected those who discovered their work missing to speak out. One researcher asked if it was time to panic. Kevin Smith, dean of libraries at the University of Kansas, said that he would expect researchers to receive a formal notice from ResearchGate before any articles were removed from the site.
He added that many researchers may have uploaded the final copyrighted version of their research without realizing they were in violation of their publishing agreement.
Often publishers only allow researchers to share original versions of their manuscripts after an embargo period; the sharing of final published versions of articles is typically restricted. Rick Anderson, associate dean for collections and scholarly communication at the J. Unfortunately, using it lawfully takes effort, whereas using it unlawfully is super easy. Be the first to know. Get our free daily newsletter.
A social networking site is not an open access repository
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Comments on a postcard. A recent article published by Prof. Sarah Bond at Forbes encouraged researchers to remove all of their research articles from the for-profit company, Academia. The issue raised in the article is essentially this: Why should for-profit companies be allowed to generate profits from your research with little transparency?
Well, actually, this sounds suspiciously like our entire scholarly publishing ecosystem to me, and it is not clear why Academia. This is a vast, global ecosystem that researchers fuel every day, and one that is undergoing quite a state of upheaval at the moment as more and more researchers realise just how daft the whole thing is. So why are people treating ResearchGate and Academia.Courseworks columbia mailman student center program
ResearchGate are renowned as the ultimate academic spam email machine, often sending unsolicited invitations to be co-author on articles you had nothing to do with, or vague comments about how a grad student from Estonia accidentally downloaded one of your datasets. One of the key arguments put forward is that in DecemberAcademia.
Online collaboration: Scientists and the social network
This provides additional information to users such as who is reading your work, what their academic role, geographic location and university are, as well as the source directing them to your work are. The Forbes article argues that this promotes academic class politics and hierarchical stratification even more, and is quite right in doing so.
Additionally, the article argues that the platform now has a policy which means that the site can collect and evaluate data provided by users, and possibly then sell onwards. Again, it is not clear how this is any different from any publisher or journal which harvests data based on the content researchers freely provide for it.
Except that ResearchGate and Academia. But by all means, if this concerns you then delete your accounts. But you should probably also then stop giving your research away for free to private publishing companies too.
If anything, these data analytics on both platforms provides a valuable service to researchers, pending what I said about the ResearchGate score above.
Both provide metrics on article re-use that are useful for researchers in seeing how their work is being digested by the community. ResearchGate even provides citation scores now too for researchers, similar to Google Scholar and other for-profit platforms like ScienceOpen. And all of them do this for free to users, removing some of the domination over citation metrics that Web of Science and Scopus, both premium and privately owned services, used to have.
And I guess one question is, so what if they are making money from publishing data? One of the main reasons why we publish is so that other people can re-use our work, including on a large-scale. Except that these platforms seem to legitimately give something of value in return beyond a brand name. As such, I find the arguments in the Forbes article not particularly convincing against either platform. Any argument against both, and their relationship to academia and research in general, seems to ignore the context and the bigger picture of our enormously broken scholarly publishing system.
Things have got so bad, that whole universities and countries are now taking a stand against the profiteering nature of some publishers. Making money while improving the overall system of scholarly communication is feasible, and none of the arguments put forward convince me that either platform is in actual conflict about this. Whatever that means. Many researchers see it more as a digital CV or business card you can request an article discussing this via ResearchGate, the original is paywalled.
Most also use it for sharing their research articles, data, or projects. While this practice is in itself questionable, this does not legally justify the large-scale copyright infringement that is so apparent on either site, irrespective of how useful it might be to authors.
This is even enhanced by Google Scholar, whose search algorithms preferentially point you to free versions available on either platform.
A consequence of this is that a couple of years ago, one of the biggest scholarly publishers, Elsevier, and one perhaps not held in the highest regard by many academics, sent 2, DMCA takedown requests of articles it published that were illegally hosted on Academia.
While this was a generally bad PR move for both Elsevier and Academia.Like the German ResearchGate lawsuit I wrote about last year, the basic premise of the suit is the same. In egregious violation of copyright law, ResearchGate provides anyone connected to the Internet with a free trove of infringing digital copies of peer-reviewed published journal articles [PJAs]. ResearchGate is not a passive host of a forum where infringement just happens to occur.
Rather, ResearchGate actively participates in the ongoing infringement, in which it directly engages by duplicating, displaying, and distributing unauthorized copies of PJAs. ResearchGate also intentionally facilitates, supports, and lures users into uploading and downloading unauthorized copies of PJAs. Big, if true. I have some doubts that I will write about later. Discussion of the authors and their articles is important context, though, for understanding how these articles were created, who posted them to ResearchGate in the first place, and what rights those users might have.
Were any authors U. Were any subject to university open access policies that reserve rights to universities or authors? Were any subject to funder OA mandates?
Or did authors pay for open access for any of these articles? But thanks to some advice from some fantastic colleagues here at Duke, I was able to extract that data and run some searches for information about the articles and authors. I think there is a whole other blog post to be written about publishers going after articles authored in large part by non-Western authors. Two of the authors are Duke authors, and I know we have an OA policy that affects whether posting the articles to ResearchGate is permissible.
Again, unclear how funder OA policies may factor into the posting of these articles, but worth further exploration. These articles raise some important questions about what rights the authors thought they were getting when they paid the OA fees for their articles.Coursework management
Did they understand that posting to ResearchGate would be disallowed? From them, I would be particularly interested in hearing what they think about this lawsuit — were they consulted before the suit was filed? Are they aware that it was even filed? Do they agree with it? Did they understand their publication contract and its effect on posting to sites like ResearchGate?
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